K3M "Pine", Japanese Trainer Aircraft

Photograph of K3M "Pine" trainer Fair use may apply.

Mitsubishi K3M3 "Pine"


2 (crew trainer versions)
1 (transport version)
2 (crew trainer versions)
5 (transport versions)
Dimensions 51'9" by 31'4" by 12'7"
15.78m by 9.54m by 3.82m
Weight 2998-4850 lb
136-2200 kg
Speed 146 mph at 3280 feet
235 km/h at 1000 meters
Climb rate 29 feet per second
8.8 meters per second
Ceiling 20,965 feet
6,390 meters
Power plant One 580 hp (432 kW) Nakajima Kotobuki 2 KAI 2 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine driving a two-bladed metal propeller.
Armament One flexible rear-firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun
External stores     
4 30kg (66 lb) bombs
Range 497 miles
800 km
Production A total of 624 of all models (including 301 K3M3) by January 1942.
The K3M2 used a considerably less powerful 340 hp (254 kW) Hitachi Amakaze 11 engine.

A small number of K3M3 were converted to K3M3-L transports.

The Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" biplane trainer came in response to a Navy order for two prototypes in 1929. The design was produced by Hattori Eng, who based some features on an earlier design by former Sopwith engineer Herbert Smith for which a prototype had never been built. The prototype was completed in May 1930 but required modifications to improve stability and correct problems with the liquid-cooled engine. The latter was replaced with a more reliable radial engine in the final production aircraft. In 1933 the Army took an interest in the project and ordered several as the Ki-7, but lost interest and handed the project over to Tokyo Koku K.K. as a civilian transport. Only one was built.

In 1939 production was transferred to K.K. Watanabe Tekkosho, which introduced the K3M3 with a more powerful engine and enlarged tail surfaces.

"Pine" was used throughout the war, primarily by the Navy. The trainer layout had the pilot and gunner in tandem cockpits and two trainees in an enclosed cabin, while the transport version carried a pilot and four or five passengers.


Francillon (1979)

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