Hanoi (105.848E 21.019N) is located on the south bank of the Red River 75 miles (120 km) from the Gulf of Tonkin. The Red River derives its name from its heavy burden of silt, and it was not navigable this far upstream in 1941, so Haiphong served as the port of Hanoi. Hanoi was an important industrial and communications center, and nearby Gia Lam was a major air base.

The rail connection to Mengtze, built by the French in 1895, was an important route for foreign aid to the Kuomintang until the Japanese pressured the French to shut it down on 20 June 1940. The Japanese later carried out their Ichi-go offensive, in part, to establish land communications from Manchuria to Hanoi and points south.

Rail connections

Da Nang




Climate Information:

Elevation: 53'

Temperatures: Jan 68/56, Apr 82/69, Jul 91/78, Oct 84/71, record 109/42

Rainfall: Jan 7/0.7, Apr 14/3.2, Jul 15/12.7, Oct 9/3.9 == 66.2" per annum


Dorn (1974)]

Pearce and Smith (1990)

Peattie et al. (2011)

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